Dainius Zubrus, Andy Greene and Mike Mottau each collected two helpers for the Devils, who returned from a 1-3-0 road trip to play their first home game since a 5-2 triumph over Nashville on February 12.
Martin Brodeur made 16 saves on 19 shots to earn the win, which pulls New Jersey to within three points of first-place Pittsburgh in the Atlantic Division.
Langenbrunner drifted through the low slot and redirected Mottau's shot past Lundqvist for a 4-3 New Jersey edge with 6:54 to play in the second period.
Rolston gave New Jersey its first two-goal cushion when his shot was deflected by Rangers defenseman Dan Girardi between the pads of Lundqvist with 4:41 remaining in the middle stanza.
Zajac beat Auld with a wicked slap shot to seal the win with 3:39 left in regulation.
Niedermayer jumped on a rebound in the high slot for a 1-0 Devils lead at 4:16 of the first period.
New Jersey regained the lead when Salvador's one-timer from the right point deflected in off a Rangers player's stick with 1:43 to play in the opening frame.
Christensen evened things up at the five-minute mark of the second period. The Devils then led for the third time in the game when Parise buried a loose puck to Lundqvist's left for a power-play tally at 8:38.
Once again, New York had a rebuttal, tying the game just 37 seconds on a goal by Prust.
Langenbrunner reached the 600-point plateau with the secondary assist on Salvador's goal...Zajac has 21 goals this season, a new personal best...Prust appeared in his 100th NHL game...New Jersey has won three of the five meetings with the Rangers this season...The Devils improved to 21-9-1 as the host, while New York fell to 15-14-3 on the road.