Lance Armstrong has long faced allegations of blood doping and steroid use from international cycling officials and a skeptical foreign press. The seven-time Tour de France champion is the subject of a federal grand jury inquiry, and Sports Illustrated reporters Selena Roberts and David Epstein have pored over documents in the case to uncover alleged evidence that Armstrong indeed flouted performance-enhancing drug rules during his career.
The full SI report will appears in the next edition of the magazine, which hits newsstands on Wednesday.
The claims made by the SI investigation include:
- Armstrong once gained access to a clinical trial of a drug that allows blood cells an expanded capacity to carry oxygen, something various forms of blood doping seeks to accomplish;
- Suspicious levels of testosterone -- a telltale sign of doping -- appeared in Armstrong's blood in three tests during the 1990s, though no sanctions ever stemmed from those tests; and
- A former Armstrong teammate claims that the cyclist was the driving force behind Team Motorola's doping efforts in the mid '90s.
Roberts and Epstein collaborated in the investigation that led to Yankees star Alex Rodriguez's outing as a PED user in 2009.