The 32-year-old signed with just minutes remaining on the deadline for free transfers, after which he would've been unable to play until the new year.
Owen spoke of his excitement to work with Potters boss Tony Pulis, saying: "He has assembled a great squad that I look forward to joining. I'm now looking forward to contributing as much as possible to the club and can't wait to play in front of a great set of supporters.
"We have been in talks for a while now and it was always a club I was keen to join."
Owen, who has also played for Real Madrid, Liverpool, and Newcastle in his career, as well as picking up 89 caps and scoring 40 goals for England, had been rumoured to return to Anfield, but the club distanced themselves from the rumours.